VO2 Max - Metabolic Rate - total energy used by organisms per unit time
Energy expended during human performance can be measured by the volume of oxygen you can consume while exercising at your maximum capacity. VO2 max is the maximum amount of oxygen in milliliters, one can use in one minute per kilogram of body weight.
            MR measured in calories = amt of heat energy --> raise 1g H2O 1oC  [14.5o to 15.5o C]
            linked to Krebs Cycle - MR is often determined by O2 consumption  by  VO2max
minimal MR is  Cal  -->  that required for basic functions of life
                      maximal MR is Cal  -->  peak metabolic activity --> Olympic swimmer  

 Those who are more fit have higher VO2 max values and can exercise more intensely than those who are not as well conditioned. Numerous studies show that you can increase your VO2 max by working out at an intensity that raises your heart rate to between 65 and 85 per cent of its maximum for at least 20 minutes three to five times a week. A mean value of VO2 max for male athletes is about 40 milliliters/min and for female athletes it is about 30 liters/minChart



Factors affecting VO2 max 
The physical limitations that restrict the rate at which energy can be released aerobically
   are dependent upon:

  • the chemical ability of the muscular cellular tissue system to use oxygen in breaking down fuels
  • the combined ability of cardiovascular and pulmonary systems to transport the oxygen to the muscular tissue system

Measuring VO2 max           VO2max measuring equipment... 

     respirometer,    oxygen meters,    a cycle ergometer,
     treadmill (stress tests) or swimming flume
*,  etc







    Ideal VO2 max max scores for various sports

Vo2 max Sport
>75 ml/kg/min Endurance Runners and Cyclists
65 ml/kg/min Squash
60-65 ml/kg/min Football (male)
55 ml/kg/min Rugby
50 ml/kg/min Volleyball (female)
50 ml/kg/min Baseball (male)





- basal metabolic rate - organisms
 @ rest w/o stress
                                      ex : humans -     males    1,600 - 1,800 Kc/d
                                                             females    1,300 - 1,500 Kc/d


                 to calculate energy in calories multiple Lt of O2  x  5.0 Kcal


                 Lance Armstrong - 0.085 ml/min/kg  x  5.0 Kcal = 0.425 Kc/min/kg
Kc/hr/kg  or  2,295 Kc/hr
                                      est.     6,500 Kc/d
& 10,000 Kc/d for mountains


to lose weight, should expend 3,500 cal = 1 pound body mass.

                                      VO2 max of some famous runners
Calculate your own VO2 max.
                                      Treadmill VO2 max Test Protocols
                                      Heart Patients and VO2 max.






% MHR and %VO2 Max

It is possible to estimate your exercise intensity as a percentage of VO2 Max from your heart rate. David Swain (1994) using statistical procedures, examined the relationship between %MHR and %VO2 Max. Their results led to the following regression equation, which has been shown to hold true across sex, age and activity.  
                                                 %MHR =  0.64  *   %VO2 Max + 37

The following calculator will do the conversion for you.
     Enter a VO2 max value and see the required max heart rate to achieve that VO2 max

     Max Heart Rate estimates :       a)  220 - age formula    220 - 61                  =  159 bpm
                                                    b)  Londeree formula     206.3 - (0.711 x 61)  = 163 bpm
                                                    c)  Miller formula          217 - (0.85 x 61)      = 165