Human Chromosomes
& Diseases







              click on a topic for more info                

The draft of the Human Genome is only the beginning.
The future must be to discover the functions
of all those genes and their associated proteins.


University of Miami Home Page | Biology Department Home Page | Dr. Mallery's Home Page
 copyright c2007
Charles Mallery, Department of Biology, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124

Created - 11/22/2001         
Last Update - July 10, 2007

















 Human Genome Project... "The human genome is a parts list." Eric Lander October 2001

The Human Genome Project    Department of Energy HGP Site
  National Institutes of Health HGP site
UK's Human Genome web site
  Center for Human Genome Studies
  DOE "Primer" on Genomics
  Whose genes
    are being sequenced?
  Criteria for whose gene are to be sequenced.  
Celera Genomics sequenced the genomes of five
        anonymous individuals -
one African-Amerian, one Asian-
, one Hispanic-Mexican and two Caucasians
. One
        individual's genome was sequenced 3.5 times; about half
        the genome of each of the remaining individuals was sequenced.
  The Sequencing Tools   Experimental Techniques & protocols
Restriction enzymes glossary
  Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms
  Genomics Glossaries   Cambridge Institute Long list of Glossaries
  HGP Genome Glossary

  Genomics & Proteomic Glossary
  Biotech Media Resource Site
  Dictionary of Genetic Terms
   HHMI Glossary of Terms
  National Plant Genome Glossary
  HHMI BioInteractive  
  Gene Databases   The Genome Database
  European Bioinformatics Institute
  Genomics Industry    Gene Companies                                                                      top     






 determining 3D protein structure & integrated relationships of all of a cell's proteins.
  Often referred to as structural genomics, this new scientific discipline involves determining 3D structures of
  large numbers of proteins. 
The goal of structural proteomics is to reveal the structures of all the key
  "functional" sites of any human protein, which should make it much easier to develop highly specific drugs.

Proteomics & the Proteomics Industry   Proteomics Companies
   What is Structural Proteomics   How to determine structure
   Known Protein Structures (3K to date)   Protein Data Bank
   Protein Structure Prediction   PROSPECT  
   Protein Families   Protein Structure Initiative
   Protein Modeling   Swiss Model
  Human Proteomics Initiative
   Individual Species Proteomics
   Genomic Modeling Projects
  Eukaryote model organisms
  Pyrococcus furiosus
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  Haemophilus influenzae
Proteomics Glossary of Terms   CHI Glossary








 Chromosome Maps

Human Chromosome Maps   Science: A gene map of the Human chromosomes
  Gene Map '99
  ORNL - Human Chromosome Maps
             - Human Chromosome Launchpad
  European Bioinformatics Institute
Genealogy Maps   deCode & Iceland - Hunt for Disease Genes
Human Genetic Diseases   Blazing a Gentic Trail - HHMI
  Catalog of Human Diseases & Genetic Disorders














STEM CELLS... are self–renewing embryonic cells that will develop into functional, differentiated cells. Human embryonic stem cells are pluripotent, that is, they can develop into
all cells and tissues in the body. Two types of human embryonic stem cells: 
1. human embryonic stem (hES) cells, derived by researchers from donated in vitro fertilized
        blastocysts or early-stage embryos,
2. and human embryonic germ (hEG) cells, which were derived from donated fetal material.

Mallery's Stem Cell page   A description of Stem Cells 
Primers on Stem Cells   NIH Stem Cell Basics
  NIH Stem Cell Information Site
Stem Cell Labs   NIH Stem Cell Registry
Popular Press Reports - The Stem Cell Debate - The Stem Cell Debate
Pictures of Stem Cells   Pictures
Personal Stem Cell Preservation   1. Bio-Cell              2.  Viacord              3.  Cryo-Cell
  4. New Born Blood Banking                    5. LifeBank
Stem Cell Companies   StemCells & Diseases of CNS









 Bioethics and Genomics - the ethical, legal, and social issues of gene research
HGP Project will eventually allow geneticists to screen, diagnose, prevent
     and/or treat many genetic disease states.
            Would you want to test yourself for a genetic condition that had no cure?
            Is your genetic data private? (Insurance companies, employers, potential spouse)
            How will society (the courts) treat "undesirable" human behavioral traits?
            What effect will "false positives" have on our "psyche"?

Exploring Genetic Issues   Your Genes, Your Choices
American Journal of Bioethics
National Bioethics Advisory Commission   NBAC
U Pennsylvania   Center for Bioethics- uPenn
Human Genome Project   A primer on Societal Concerns


















 How is the DNA of the Genome studied?          Journal of DNA Sequencing
   The Tools of the Genetic Engineering - sophisticated & elegant lab techniques in Molecular Biology.
                                     List of Molecular Biology Protocols

      1.  Isolation of DNA from tissues of interest (or anywhere)...    anyone can do it?
                for HGP mostly from human white blood cells.   (or from onion cells).
      2.  cut up isolated chromosome DNA via restriction endonucleases. (Arber Review)
                types of restriction enzyme & where they cut
                EcoRI - restriction endonuclease #1 from Escherichia coli.
      3.  make multiple copies of DNA fragments via gene cloning
                DNA is spliced into vectors   - plasmids,   cosmids   (Drosophilia cosmid Library)
                                                            - bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs)
                 recombined DNA is copied (or cloned)
      4.  cloned pieces of DNA can undergo DNA sequencing...    FAQ's
deoxy-nucleotides tagged with different colored fluorescent dyes...
                                    Nature ref  and commercial tags
                 some of the protocols & methodologies
                 DNA copied then sequence read from fluorescent pattern when DNA lit with laser
                                    commercial sequencing companies: SEQWright, CyberGene, Davis,
                                    via fast-paced computer-run sequencing machine ABI-377 & ABI-6700
      5.  Sequencing strategies: shotgun & physical map constructs
                 chromosomal DNA cut by several restriction enzymes, cloned & sequenced
                 results in overlapping sequences which are aligned via computer analysis into physical map
top  6.  Sequencing Yourself - NOVA Online's Human Genome Project site.