A Brief and Incomplete History of Cell and Molecular Biology 
1865  Gregor Mendel phenotypic basis of inheritance
1868  Friedrich Meischer discovers "nuclein" -in pus & fish sperm
1887  August Weismann describes reduction division of chromosomes
1903  Walter Sutton describes meiosis & spermatogenesis in insects
"Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance"
1909  Thomas Hunt Morgan Drosophilia, chromosmal linkage & crossing over
1911  Alfred Stuartevant mapping of genes on chromsomes
1924  Robert Fuelgen cytochemical staining & identification of DNA
1928  Fred Griffith used pneumococcus & described gene transformation
1933  Ted Painter identifies polytene chromosomes 
1930's George Beadle & Ed Tatum "one gene - one enzyme"          
1940's  Linus Pauling     peace identifies alpha helix structure of proteins    
1940's Maurice Wilkins
Rosy Franklin 
X-ray diffraction - structure of DNA
1944  Oswald Avery, 
Maclyn MacLeod, & Colin McCarty
chemically suggest that 
          "DNA is genetic material "
1950  Erwin Chargaff "Chargaff's Rule" - DNA base complimentarity A:T G:C
1950's Fred Sanger   tRNA sequences 1st protein - insulin
1952  Alfred Hershey & 
Martha Chase 
32P viral DNA replication = genes are DNA
1953   James Watson & 
Francis Crick
identify model structure of DNA
1956  Arthur Kornberg describes action of DNA polymerase 
1950's Peter Mitchell Chemiosmosis - how cells make ATP            
1958  Matt Meselson & Frank Stahl semiconservative replication of DNA
1960 Paul Doty & Jay Marmur  Tm-hyperchromicity DNA - DNA hybridization
1961  Holley, Khorana, & Nirenberg & Henirich Mattaei  identifies Genetic Code  
1963  Jerome Vinograd  identifies super-coiled structure of DNA
1968 Stanley Cohen discovers plasmids & antibiotic resistance
1969  Edmonds & Caramelai identifies poly-A-polymerase
1970 Herbert Boyer discovers restriction endonuclease
1971 Gunter Blobel signal hypothesis
1972 Paul Berg Recombinant DNA's - splices SV40 & E coli
1975 Walter Gilbert, allan Maxam, Fred Sanger develop DNA sequences techniques
1975 Cesar Milstein, Geo. Kohler, & Niles Jeme develop monoclonal antibodies
1976 Robert Swanson & Herb Boyer create GENENTECH biopharmaceutical Co.
1977  Richard Roberts & 
Philip Sharp
identifies split genes (introns & exons)
1978 Genentech, Inc. produces Humulin 1st recombinant DNA drug
1981  Sidney Altman & Tom Cech identifies ribozymes    
1985 Kary Mullis creates PCR - Polymerase Chain Reaction
1989 HGP Project project to sequence entire human genome
1990 French Anderson 1st use of Recombinant DNA drug (ADA)
1992 Harry Noller peptidyl transferase is a ribozyme
1992  Edmund Fischer & 
Edwin Krebs
identify protein phosphorylation
1993  Kerry Mullis creates PCR reaction
1994 Calgene FlavrSavr tomato 1st transgenic food
1996 Ian Wilmut mammalian cloning & Dolly
1997  Paul Boyer & John Walker describes ATP synthase mechanism
1998 James Thompson & John Gearhart plueripotent (stem) cells cultured
1999 Craig Venter complete gene sequence of Drosophila identified
2000 Craig Venter Human Genome sequence announced
     
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