Karyotype - chromosomal characteristics of an individual cell, shown as the array of metaphase chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single cell nucleus. The chromosomes are arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the centromere.  
Normal Human Female Karyotype                                                         Animated karyotyping






Normal Human Male Karyotype         







A Spectral Karyotype       
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pic from: Indigo Instruments / Wellcome Trust Sanger Center
False-color photograph shows human chromosomes,
with the Chromosome 1 pair highlighted in blue.

Chromosome 1, the last human chromosome to be sequenced by Simon Gregory at the Sanger Institute in England, contains nearly twice as many genes as the average chromosome and makes up eight percent of the human genetic code. It is packed with 3,141 genes and linked to 350 illnesses including cancer, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s disease, and a gene for a common form of cleft lip and palate..  The human genome has an estimated 20,000 to 25,000 genes.










 Down Syndrome     








 Down Syndrome    







Turner Syndrome         
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 Kleinfelter Syndrome    






 XYY syndrome  
  back sex linked                       back to mistakes of meiosis