Brightfield   -    Phase Contrast   -   Nomarski   -    Dark Field 

History of Microscopy    Types of Microscopy      Go to photo caption 

    Biology 150 - General Biology
    Principles of biology at the molecular, cellular, genetic, and organismal
    levels of organization.
    Instructor - Charles Mallery
    Associate Dean and Associate Professor of Biology, College Arts and Sciences
    Ashe Bldg. Room 200   -   305-284-3188
    Textbook - "Biology"   by Neil Campbell & Jane Reece,  7th edition.
                       Benjamin Cummings, Publisher, 2005.   ISBN 0-8053-7171-0
                       published by Addison-Wesley-Benjamin Cummings.
    55 chapters and 1231 pages - (way too much)
    Office Hours -
    call his Secretary, Barbara Varona, for an appointment at:  305-284-3188.
    Lecture - Lecture will be in the Cox Science Bldg. on TR for fall and on MWR for the summer at the dates and times posted on the course syllabus. 
    Workshops - a series of practice problem sets to be completed by small groups of students working together with a student peer facilitator. Workshops will be reviewed with Dr. Mallery during lecture... see schedule.  
    The workshop-practice problem sets are part of the course and should be completed in a timely fashion.   Also, please remember that the
    laboratory course [BIL 151] is a co-requisite to Biology 150.
    Special Needs - if you have special needs as addressed by the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and need assistance please do not hesitate to contact me. Additionally, if you have special needs regarding exams (privacy, large type, longer time) you may contact the Office of Accessibility Resources (room 201 in the Whitten University Center) and its director, Judith Antinrella, 284-2374, for assistance.
    Exams - There will be three examinations. The first two tests will be non-cumulative [often 150 points each] and given during the semester (see dates on syllabus), and a final examination which will include material since test 2 [about 150 points], plus a cumulative portion of the whole course on the final exam [about 50 points]. Workshops will have a point value of 50 points. The course total will be 550 points and your grade will be determined from a curve of the maximum points for any student.
    POST-EXAM ANALYSIS...  One of the best ways to find out how to change your study and test-taking tactics is to analyze your recent exam. I will post keys to the exams on the course web page, usually the same day as the exam. You will be allowed to keep your test, when you leave the exam room. You should review the posted keys and mark the correct answers on your exam. Then, for every question you miss you should write down two things: 1) why you chose that answer (the incorrect answer) and 2) why you did not choose the correct answer. Do this as soon as you finish the exam while you still remember why you chose specific answers. Waiting until just before the next test to do this type of critical thinking often does not work. Also, be very specific. Saying that you chose an answer because you thought it was right one is obvious... better is to ask...Why did you think that it, above all other choices in the question, was correct; What scientific fact(s) lead you to choose that answer choice. Whatever the reason is, write it down.... (you thought that proteins were made of sugars, a car backfired and distracted you, your roommate told you the nucleus of the cell makes candy, the material was not in your notes, you did not study). Once you have done this for every question that you missed, you should look for any trends. If you can not find any trends then, bring the analyzed exam to me, and I will try to help. I have had students tell me that they now do this in all of their classes and that it is very helpful.
    ACADEMIC ETHICS: Cheating will NOT be tolerated. It does not affect the instructor but directly affects every student. Since most large classes are graded on a curve, the unfair elevation of the grades of a few artificially lowers both the grades and value of the degree of the majority. The Biology Department has adopted the policy that the penalty for cheating, plagiarism, or acquiescence in them shall be FAILURE of the course. 
         During a test we will assume that you are cheating if your eyes wander from your paper to another's or that you are passing answers if we observe you talking. You will be required to sign your answer sheet in compliance with the following U.M. Honor Code statement:
    SIGNATURE:_________ On my honor, I have neither given nor received any
                                                             aid on this examination.

    The instructor of this course supports the University of Miami Honor Code. Cheating, plagiarism, or acquiescence in these activities is subject to the provisions of the Honor Code.




       Course Resources and Help
    In addition to the resources listed just below, don't forget to browse to the links highlighted under each lecture topics for helpful hints, notes, and goodies of all sorts.     The TOP 12 things to do to be successful in BIL 150.               

    Survival of the Fittest... Some Academic  Survival Skills or How to Succeed in Biology   without Really Trying.  


           Try the new Online Testing Center, which contains recent multiple choice exams in an interactive format!
    The Web address for the Biology Department server is
    Course materials and interactive examinations can be found on the U.M. Biology Department "Home Page" under the heading "Courses".
    Some really hot topics, i.e., Scientific significa  of no REAL consequence;  These web pages are just for the pure joy of reading some of the vast biological trivia and unimportant facts that are published everyday..... read and enjoy.
    A treatise on Class Notes - comparing UM with UF and FSU....... (smile)
        Internet Biology Links ... a collection of useful and interesting web pages
    that deal with a number of biology topics that can help a student gather more
    detailed information about some of the courses topics.

    Please let Dr. Mallery is any of the links are no longer active. You can send an E-mail
    to Dr. Mallery by clicking on the address below.

       Dr. Mallery:   go to SYLLABUS & LECTURE SCHEDULE











     Caption : Four different types of light microscopy.
       The images are of a fibroblast cell grown in culture.  When light is passed through a living cell, the phase of the light waves is changed according to the cell's Refractive Index Light passing through a dense cell part [nucleus] has its phase retarded relative to the light passing through the cytoplasm, thus creating contrast.    
    Brightfield Microscopy:  
       Standard transmission of light through the cell, which has very little contrast. A cell is 70% water, thus most of the cell is basically colorless and translucent, i.e., invisible to the eye.

    Phase Contrast Microscopy:
       Incident light [Io] is out of phase with transmitted light [I] and when the phases of the light are synchronized by an interference lens, a new image with greater contrast is seen.    
    Nomarski (phase- contrast) Microscopy:  
       is also known as differential interference contrast micro- scopy. Synchronizing of the different phases of incident and transmitted light is done by a set of special condenser lens mounted below the stage of a microscope. 
    Dark Field Microscopy:  
       Here the illuminating rays of light are directed from the side so that only scattered light enters the microscope lenses, consequently the cell appears as an illuminated object against the view. 


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Last Update - Thursday, April 03, 2008