Automobile Fuel Cells:
Fuel Cells operate like the ETC of mitochondria.

1. hydrogen atoms (H2) enter into a fuel cell and an anode splits it to electron and protons. 2. Electrons move along a external circuit to power a drive motor.  3. Protons migrate through a membrane toward a cathode.  4. A catalyst combines the electrons and protons with oxygen from the air generating water and heat. Many membrane cells can be combined for greater power.

   Mitochondrial Electron Transfer Chain:
                          the ETC operates like a fuel cell.


1. NADH is split to electrons and protons by a membrane protein.  2. Electrons flow along a series of protein carriers to drive 3.a "pump" of protons (moved across membrane).  4. A terminal membrane carrier protein combines protons and oxygen to make water.?

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