Throughout time, thoughts and ideas of life have been formed, stretching from
abiogenesis and spontaneous generation to the modern
cell theory. Here is a brief
overview of the progression of thoughts that have contributed to today's cell theory.
The list tabulates key events in scientific history and explores the profile of influential
scientists and philosophers, who have contribute to the Cell Theory.
Early ideas on Origins of the Cell Theory
A member of the Greeks in the sixth century B.C. who resided on the Ionian Islands. He is credited with coming up with the primary thoughts of evolution. His perspective was that creatures
from the sea were forced to come ashore, thereby evolving into land creatures.
Plato did not directly aid in the progress of biological thinking. His view was not experimental, but more philosophical. Many of his students went on to influence the progression of
biological studies in the field of classification.
The most noted of this group of Greek philosophers was
Democritus (460 - 370 B.C.). He followed Anaximander's view of evolution. Democritus is credited as being the father of atomic theory
which connects directly to biology. One important theory of his was simply that if you have nothing, nothing may be created out of it.
Aristotle (384 - 322 B.C.) was known for his experimental approach and numerous dissections. He was drawn to animal classification in order to discover aspects of connection between the soul
and the human body. Some of his animal classifications still stand today. One of his famous thoughts is a foreshadowing of Mendelian genetic concepts:
- "It is evident that there must be something or other really existing, corresponding to what we call by the name of Nature. For a given germ does not give rise to
any random living being, nor spring from any chance one, but each germ springs from a definite parent and gives rise to a predictable progeny. And thus it is the germ that is the ruling
influence and fabricator of the offspring."
Following the Greeks, there was a downfall in scientific thought. This decline is usually attributed to the Christian Church, and the power shift to the "barbaric" tribes.
These three scientific figures, thought not all living during the same time period, can be accredited with much of the advancement of anatomical thought following the Dark Ages, such as
discovering the circulation of blood.
This instrument opened up new doors in the field of biology, by allowing
scientists to gaze into a new world: the cellular world.
is credited with the invention of the microscope. Two of the main pioneers in
microscope usage were
Athanasius Kircher and
Antonie von Leeuwenhoek.
This English naturalist (1635 - 1703) coined the term "cell" after viewing slices of cork through a microscope. The term came from the Latin word cella which means
"storeroom" or "small container". He documented his work in the Micrographia, written in 1665.
The majority of this Frenchman's work (1744 - 1829) dealt with animal classification and evolution. He is credited with taking steps towards the creation of the cell theory with this saying:
"Every step which Nature takes when making her direct creations consists in organizing
into cellular tissue the minute masses of viscous or mucous substances
that she finds
at her disposal under favorable circumstances."
Rene Dutrochet discovered that "the cell is the fundamental element in the structure of living bodies, forming both animals and plants through juxtaposition." However, the
first sightings of the internal action of the cell were made by
Robert Brown. In Berlin, Johannes Muller created connections between biology and medicine, prompting the connective thinking
of his students, such as those of
Theodore Schwann. Schwann created the term "cell theory" and declared that
animals consisted of cells. This declaration was made after that of
Matthias Schlieden's (1804 - 1881) that
plants are composed of cells.
German pathologist Rudolf Virchow (1821 - 1902) altered the thought of cellular biology with his statement that "every cell comes from a cell". Not even twenty years after this
statement, processes of cell reproduction were being described--Virchow had completed the thought behind the basic cell theory.