The earth's outer layer is fluid
STRUCTURE OF THE ATMOSPHERE
There is great vertical movements in the troposphere, where our weather occurs.
Above the troposphere, separated by the
TROPOPAUSE...... there is the STRATOSPHERE.
--- Thus material injected into the stratosphere is not easily removed into the troposphere.
COMPOSITION OF THE ATMOSPHERE
(N2) and Oxygen (02).
Other components include Argon (Ar), Carbon dioxide (CO2), Methane (CH4), Ozone (03), and Water Vapor.
- in the stratosphere, it shields the earth's
surface from damaging solar UV radiation.
- evaporation removes energy from water; water vapor carries this energy (Latent Heat) away.
- Condensation of the water vapor releases energy. example: HURRICANES'
power derives from condensing water vapor within rising air in the
is balanced by re-radiation of heat from the earth (infrared) to space.
-- Green house gases cause this process to occur at higher temperatures.
--high latitude vs. low latitude
UNEQUAL HEATING CAUSES CONVECTION CELLS
WARM, MOIST (LESS DENSE) AIR RISES, THEN COOLS AND SINKS---
THE RETURN, SURFACE FLOW ARE THE SURFACE WINDS
This is complicated by the Earth's rotation, which gives
rise to a force called the
This causes moving objects to be deflected:
TO AN OBSERVER STANDING ON THE ROTATING DISK, AN OBJECT IS APPARENTLY DEFLECTED TO THE RIGHT AS THE DISK ROTATES UNDER THE OBJECT
THE INTENDED TARGET "X" IS ROTATED WITH THE DISK. THEREFORE IT SEEMS THAI' PROJECTED OBJECT 'D "MISSES" TO THE RIGHT!!!!
The next two viewgraphs illustrate how low and high pressure areas lead to winds
1) There are global high and low pressure areas which dictate the general flow of the winds and climate.
2) There are also regional, or local, low and high pressure systems coresponding to divergence and convergence of air.
Hurricanes are intense low pressure systems, where air rushes in and rises, releasing enormous amounts of energy:
- S is large in the central subtropical gyres, where there is less rainfall and strong prevailing winds.
Highest salinities occur where there is an excess of evaporation over precipitation. Lowest salinities occur where there is an excess of precipitation, and where there are inputs of river and melt water.
The distribution of water and heat are related through the heat stored in water and in water vapor.
To understand these distributions, it is useful to construct budgets. In budgets,
SUM of INPUTS = SUM of OUTPUTS
1) WATER BUDGET
Precipitation + runoff + current transport + meltwater
= evaporation + current transport
2) HEAT BUDGET
Heat from sun + heat carried in from currents =
latent heat lost from evaporation
+ longwave radiation
+ heat lost to the atmosphere
+ heat carried away by currents
The system is at steady state, in that the volume of the basin does not change..... there is a balance of inputs and outputs.
STRUCTURE OF THE OCEAN
- acts as a barrier between the surface and deeper water.
- it's T,S not very variable. It's
characteristics fixed in polar regions
Temperature - Salinity Diagrams
Therefore, T and S can be used to trace the mixing of different water masses.
A) Open Ocean
- bounded by westward flowing
equatorial currents and eastward flowing high latitude currents.
The affect of wind upon the water is complicated by the earth's rotation, which is called the Coriolis Force.
The relationship between the wind, earth's rotation and the surface ocean leads to a net transport which is 90' to the right of the wind.
Leads to convergence in gyres